In appearance caraway seed and fennel seed seem quite similar, elongated with ridges running lengthways from one end to the other. Both seeds belong to the same plant family and share an anise or licorice flavor. Caraway also has notes of nuttiness and an earthy sort of muskiness added that is missing from fennel
There is more than one type of paprika, using hot chilis or sweet plus you can make it smoky as well. Chili powder will vary but uses chili’s, cumin and garlic powder. Again you can find variation in terms of heat developed. Cayenne pepper is a hot and fiery pepper used in some of these mixes.
Both nutmeg and mace are from the myristica genus of tree. Nutmeg is the seed found within the fruit of the tree and mace is the dried seed covering (aril) that is lace like in appearance. Both share a flavor and aroma of delicate warmth and sweetness, with mace having a much more pungent taste.
Chinese five spice has an origin as being a bit of use all spice blend. One which hits all five of the areas for taste that we humans have. Bitter, Sweet, Sour, Savory (umami) and salty. There is no one specific blend and it has been adapted as it moves through Asia over the decades.